1- Define the Gestalt Theory in your own words.
Gestalt means ”unified whole”. Gestalt theories are based to describe how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied. The result, whole or sum is more than it’s sum of parts. For example our mind can fill the caps of incomplete parts or a picture which is formed from different shapes. The shapes are put in right way and order and it forms a regognizable image. Gestalt theory was developed by German psychologists in the 1920s.
2- Page through a magazine or newspaper or browse the Internet and find a different logo for each of the Gestalt principles. Explain in your own words, which logos are showing which principles, motivate your answer.
Similarity – when the objects look similar to another and people see them as patterns or groups. The human eye tends to build a relationship between similar elements within a design. Similarity can be achieved using basic elements such as shapes, colors, and size.
Here in London London logo the similar font and color creates similarity. When similarity occurs an object can be emphasised if it is dissimilar to the others like here the O’s. That is called anomally.
Continuation – when eye is guided to move through one object and continued to the next object.
In this logo it seems that the arrow is going through the hole logo leading the eye to read the objects (text) from left to right. The guidange is made by separating the text into two – lower and upper part.
Closure – when object is incomplete or the space is not completely enclosed.
You can definitely see a caw here. Made from different shapes and carefully placed, the human eye closes the picture even though it’s incomplete.
Proximity – when elements are placed close together. They are still separate but makes unity together.
In this logo different colored shapes are making unity, creating something new together and forming a shape of a butterfly. If the shapes would be separated you wouldn’t be able to recognize the butterfly anymore.
Figure – using figure/ground relationship can make interesting affects to the image.
This Pittsburg Zoo logo is an interesting example of the use of an background and figure relationship. You can clearly recognize the tree but you can also see the gorilla and a lion on the side of the tree.
3- Find examples of four themes of thinking, and explain your choices.
KISS – Keep it simple or short principle is quite similar to Ockham’s razor principle where the elements that are not needed should be left out. Like in the poster under here the design is striped very minimal and it’s essential elements. Still the message comes through loud and clear. Bad and good. Criminal underground.
WHITE SPACE – Giving some breeding space for the design lifts often the key design elements to be seen. Those elements gets the viewer’s attention and creates a greater impact.
The white space doesn’t have to be white like here in this Coca-Cola poster. The white bottles forming a smile draws the attention. You easily recognize it as a Coca-Cola ad and all the unnecessary has been taking away. Coca Cola’s main focus for marketing is a coke makes you happy.
TEXT MINIMIZATION – The examples are not from the same ad but you can clearly see the point here. This principle suggests to keep the text in minimum – short sentences, just the most important things and sharp phrases. Usually person’s eye catches couple of things from the layout and it is said that the pictures tell thousand words. At least it’s more appealing to the eye and invites to read more.
GRAPHIC IMPACT – In this United Nations poster the graphic creates an visual impact that grabs your attention. It’s a big size graphic but still leaves white space to the edges and space to bread. Also it’s easy to understand, doesn’t mislead and adds meaning to the message. The text and colours are left to minimum.